Inkata Press: Singapore. Haugen, D. National strategy for control of Sirex noctilio in Australia. Neumann, F. The Sirex Wasp in Victoria. Bulletin No.
Speight, M. Forest pests in the tropics: current status and future threats.riselfflatinad.cf/map46.php
What pests and diseases damage black cherry timber?
In Watt, A. Forests and Insects, ; Chapman and Hall: London. Speight M. Blackwell Science: Oxford. Waters, W. Integrated forest pest management: a silvicultural necessity. In Apple, J. Wickman, B. Increased growth of white fir after a Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak. Journal of Forestry Wingfield, M.
Integrated management of forest tree diseases in South Africa. Wylie, F. Managing attack by bark and ambrosia beetles Coleoptera: Scolytidae in fire-damaged Pinus plantations and salvaged logs in Queensland, Australia. Australian Forestry 62 2 Zwolinski, J. Intensity of dieback induced by Sphaeropsis sapinea in relation to site conditions. European Journal of Forest Pathology Elias has a number of work on reduced impact logging. By their nature, forest plantations in the tropics can have a great impact on the environment, therefore the intensive forest management of plantation should give more attention on this particular issue, mainly on the timber harvesting operations.
The purpose of this paper is to present the reduced impact timber harvesting RITH in tropical forest plantation.
The damages to the forest ecosystem in plantation under intensive forest management should be minimized as much as possible. This can be obtained through landscape planning of plantation area; good road network system and harvesting plan; marking of "future" - trees in thinning; low impact timber harvesting technologies and improved techniques; appropriate forest engineering; education and training; etc. It is expected that limiting the damages will result in protection and maintenance of the long term integrity and value of the forest resources and environmental service.
Most plantations in tropical countries have been managed according to classical sustainable yield principles, with the main purpose to produce industrial roundwood e. Thinning and clear felling of large areas are very common in harvesting operation of forest stands in plantation, mainly in pulp wood plantation, which is characterised by intensive forest management; producing large quantities of pulpwood, large-scale harvesting operations and using highly mechanised machines. By their nature, forest plantations can have a great impact on the environment, therefore the management of forest plantation should give more attention on this particular issue, mainly on site preparation, fertilizer application and timber harvesting operations activities.
Timber Pests and Diseases von W. P. K. Findlay - Online lesen
The purpose of this paper is to present the reduced impact timber harvesting RITH in the tropical forest plantation. The goals of RITH in plantation are as follows:. According to Elias a , severe damage on soil and remaining stand will cause further extensive environmental damage in form of soil erosion, compacted and infertile soil, turbidity water and sedimentation, etc. Timber harvesting is one of the major human interferences to the forest that causes environmental damage and should therefore be properly planned and executed.
To minimize damage to the forest ecosystem in plantation under intensive forest management, landscape planning should be incorporated in the sustainable yield management. Landscape Planning or sometimes called "Landscape Ecosystem Management" is a relatively new management concept Hagner, This planning aims to:. For example: some forest areas should be left untouched as reserves for biodiversity conservation; steep slope could be placed into watershed protection zone; an important habitat for endangered plants or animals as a biological reserve zone.
Landscape planning is a critically important step in defining and locating the net productive area of plantation for timber production for a forest management unit.
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The timber production zone forms the area basis for determination of the annual allowable cut Armitage, Choice of timber harvesting technologies and techniques should be incorporated in sustainable yield management. This includes avoidance of damage to the remaining stand, retention and protection of trees which have potential for cultural and ecological values. The planning of timber harvesting should be completed long before the loggers enter the site. It must be developed comprehensively both strategically and operationally to ensure that planning mechanism protect all forest values at all times during timber harvesting Strategic plans years, operational plans 1 year and task plan.
In RITH operation, the activities should be conducted according to the timber harvesting plans and the standards or code of timber harvesting practices. Use low impact timber harvesting technologies, improved techniques and appropriate forest engineering. After harvesting activities are over, the loggers are to take compulsory measures to prevent further environmental damage.
In forest plantation, there are two forms of harvest, namely thinning young, small trees and final harvest old, large trees. Mobility in the stand is an important environmental feature. This applies in particular to thinning. The denser the stand the more difficult felling and processing of trees, bunching and skidding of timber. At clear cutting, which is a common form of final harvest there are usually no problems of crowding in the stands, hence mobility of machines are easier.
Time schedules for tree harvesting and other work are prepared for all of the units of treatment harvesting in the annual area.
A large part of the harvesting work consist of felling, processing, skidding and hauling. Planning of harvesting operations includes the planning of road systems. Figure 1 shows an example of road systems and harvesting systems in the annual area a , and an example of timber harvesting plan in one unit of treatment b. Felling is actually a first transport step in direction which the feller can control by a skillful handling of equipment. If felling is done in the right direction directed felling , a valuable free transport can be obtained.
Directed felling can also facilitate a concentration of timber to predetermine place in the stand or along the skidtrail for skidding. At directed felling, the logs trees are placed in a pattern which facilitates the subsequent operations. The pattern of felling should be compatible with the methods of subsequent processing and transport. Figure 2 shows an example of felling pattern.
Tree pests and diseases
Work techniques and equipment which are used for timber harvesting in plantation vary between different forms of harvesting systems, e. In some places, mainly in small scale plantations, handsaws, axes, chainsaws, oxen, buffaloes and small tractors are still the most common means of timber harvesting. On the other hand, timber harvesting in large-scale plantations is currently highly mechanized, using harvesters, feller bunchers, processors, forwarders, skidders and cable systems.
Figure 1a. Road Systems and Harvesting Systems Elias, et. Figure 1b. Timber Harvesting Plan of a Compartment Elias, et. In terms of ground based machinery, the general trend is towards lighter, more mobile and computerized machines that can automatically optimise the value of harvested trees when cutting them into product assortments cut-to-length method and cause little damage to soils and remaining trees.
Work techniques, which are used to minimize damage on soil and remaining stand caused by timber harvesting e. The three figures below are three harvesting systems, which are recommended by the author to be implemented as RITH in the forest plantation of PT. For sustainable forest management of plantation, soil compaction and damage to tree roots, tree stems and tree crowns caused by timber harvesting should be minimized as much as possible.
It was identified, following laboratory analysis, as being present on Scots pine trees at two forests, one in Limerick and one in Cork. Read more: Dothistroma Needle Blight. Phytophthora ramorum symptoms on Japanese larch The disease caused by the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum a fungus like organism, can damage and kill plants and trees it infects. Read more: Phytophthora Ramorum. The Pine Weevil, Hylobius abietis , is a serious pest and has been recognised as such in Europe for a number of centuries. It is particularly wide-spread in replanted coniferous forestry plantations.
Females lay their eggs in stumps of recently cut conifers.
Larvae develop below ground in the 'protected' environment of these root-stumps, feeding upon the inner bark. Adults emerge to feed on the stems of replanted seedlings, and because the adults are large relative to seedling trees, a single individual can damage or kill several young plants. Read more: Pine Weevil - Hylobius Abietis. The eight-toothed spruce bark beetle Ips typographus also known as the European spruce bark beetle, large spruce bark beetle and larger eight-toothed spruce bark beetle.
Adult females lay eggs along a linear gallery system from which larval galleries radiate, becoming wider as the larvae grow. They may feed on cherry also. I could not confirm that they do though. Cherry leaf spot, which is a fungal pathogen, can cause defoliation, but I can't recall seeing it at that level. What pests and diseases damage black cherry timber? Tim A.
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